New Module: The Washington Codex

Written by jdarlack on August 15th, 2006

Ewan MacLeod has made available a module containing images of The Gospel of Mark in the Washington Codex (52MB)!

The Washington Codex (a.k.a. Codex Washingtonianus, Codex Freerianus, W, or 032) is a fifth century uncial codex containing the Four Gospels. Aland & Aland rate it with a category III (p. 116). It is housed in the Freer Gallery of Art at the Smithsonian in Washington D.C.

Of particular interest is the “Freer Logion” found at the end of the manuscript after Mark 16:14:

κἀκεῖνοι ἀπελογοῦντο λέγοντες ὅτι ὁ αἰὼν οὗτος τῆς ἀνομίας καὶ τῆς ἀπιστίας ὑπὸ τὸν σατανᾶν ἐστιν, ὁ μὴ ἐῶν τὰ ὑπὸ τῶν πνευμάτων ἀκάθαρτα τὴν ἀλήθειαν τοῦ θεοῦ καταλαβέσθαι δύναμιν· διὰ τοῦτο ἀποκάλυψόν σου τὴν δικαιοσύνην ἤδη, ἐκεῖνοι ἔλεγον τῷ χριστῷ. καὶ ὁ χριστὸς ἐκείνοις προσέλεγεν ὅτι πεπλήρωται ὁ ὅρος τῶν ἐτῶν τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ σατανᾶ, ἀλλὰ ἐγγίζει ἄλλα δεῖνα· καὶ ὑπὲρ ὣν ἐγὼ ἁμαρτησάντων παρεδόθην εἰς θανατὸν ἵνα ὑποστρέψωσιν εἰς τὴν ἀλήθειαν καὶ μηκέτι ἁμαρτήσωσιν ἵνα τὴν ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ πνευματικὴν καὶ ἄφθαρτον τῆς δικαιοσύνης δόξαν κληρονομήσωσιν. (Text from Evans, WBC 34B, p. 543.) And they excused themselves, saying, ‘This age of lawlessness and unbelief is under Satan, who does not allow the truth and power of God to prevail over the unclean things of the spirits [or, does not allow what lies under the unclean spirits to understand the truth and power of God]. Therefore reveal your righteousness now’ – thus they spoke to Christ. And Christ replied to them, ‘The term of years of Satan’s power has been fulfilled, but other terrible things draw near. And for those who have sinned I was handed over to death, that they may return to the truth and sin no more, in order that they may inherit the spiritual and incorruptible glory of righteousness that is in heaven.’ (Trans. from Metzger, Textual Commentary, p. 104.)

Here’s the publication information for this module: Facsimile of the Washington Manuscript of the Four Gospels in the Freer Collection with an Introduction by Henry A. Sanders. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 1912. Compiled with permission by Ewan MacLeod from the files at

For more information on the Washington Codex and the Freer Logion, check out the following:

  • Hurtado, L. W. 1981. Text-Critical Methodology and the Pre-Caesarean Text: Codex W in the Gospel of Mark. SD 43. Grand Rapids. Find in a Library!
  • Hurtado, L. W. 1992. “Codex Washintonianus,” Anchor Bible Dictionary 1:1075. Find in a Library!
  • J. Jeremias. 1991. “The Freer Logion.” Pages 248-49 in vol. 1 of New Testament Apocrypha, ed. W. Schneemelcher, rev. ed., 2 vols. Cambridge; Louisville. Find in a Library!
  • “Codex Washingtonianus” in Wikipedia.
  • “Codex Washingtonensis” by Timothy W. Seid at Earlham School of Religion.

To install, download the zipped folder (52MB!), unzip it and then move the files into your bibleworks 7/databases folder. Restart BibleWorks, navigate to a verse in Mark and then follow the link in the Resource Summary Window.

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