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New Version - Latin transcription of Codex Bezae

Monday, November 11th, 2013

Pasquale Amicarelli, a BibleWorks power user, has just put the finishing touches on a new version for BibleWorks. Like many of his offerings this combines his interests in textual criticism and Latin texts. This time he put the transcription of the Latin text of Codex Bezae into BibleWorks format.

In BibleWorks 9 there are already images and a transcription of the Greek text of Codex Bezae, but for whatever reason the Latin text was never offered (although the images of the Latin pages are available in the BibleWorks images of Codex Bezae). With this version, BibleWorks users will have access to transcriptions of both the Latin and the Greek of Bezae as well as access to the images of both!
Many thanks to Pasquale for his work!!

DOWNLOAD!

Unzip the files to the \databases\ subfolder in your BibleWorks folder and restart BibleWorks. The new version will use the version ID VLBZ.

[File updated 11/18/13 with correct verse mapping file]

NA28 Text vs. NA27 Text

Tuesday, October 9th, 2012

NA28 has been available in Europe for a month or so, but so far it hasn’t been available yet in the USA. Fortunately the web is working faster than the printing presses. There are a few useful sites to learn about the NA28. First and foremost, is Wieland Willker’s website which includes a list of differences between NA27 and the Editio Critica Maior (ECM) of the Catholic Epistles. For a long time this was the best source of information about NA28, but it is not the same thing as the NA28 text. The NA28 text is supposed to be the same as the second edition of the ECM, which will be published after the NA28 is out. In other words, sometimes in the first edition of the ECM a reading that the editors preferred was rejected in the end for the NA28, or one that was not chosen in the ECM first edition did make the cut to the NA28. Thanks to Wieland for collating this information.

So far then, the only way to learn what the NA28 text was to a) wait for it to arrive in America or b) compare Wieland’s website with abbreviated list of verses changed on the official Nestle-Aland website. Fortunately a better solution has arrived in the form of a) Larry Hurtado’s brief preview of the NA28 in which he lists all the verses that are different in the NA28 and b) the official online version of the NA28 text.

Putting the two of those together, I took Larry Hurtado’s list of differences and compared the online version of NA28 with the NA27 and BYZ texts in a Word doc so that people would have not merely the list of verses changed, but the actual content of those verses. Obviously what will really interest people is the reason decisions were made, including the list of manuscripts in support of each reading. I have not provided that kind of information here. But I think what you will have should give you a good idea of what’s happened in the text of the NA28.

Remember, the only textual differences between the NA27 and NA28 occur in the Catholic Epistles. In all other places the text is the same. Obviously there are other changes in the NA28 that may make it worth owning, but now you know the differences in the base text between the two versions.

DOWNLOAD - NA28 vs. NA27 (and BYZ) text comparison.

If you find that I have missed any of the textual changes (or copied them incorrectly), please let me know and I will update the comparison.

New Module - Trench’s Synonyms of the New Testament

Thursday, October 27th, 2011

As I continue cleaning out files that I’ve had around but don’t have enough time to perfect, I am now releasing a CHM module that contains Richard Trench’s Synonyms of the New Testament.

Although it lacks Scripture tagging, I’m sure you’ll still find it useful in your study of the Greek New Testament.

This text was digitized by Ted Hildebrandt in 2006 and is used by his gracious permission. I have simply converted it into a form BibleWorks can use.

The main downside to the text is that I have not attempted to do Scriptural tagging and the font used is not Greek Unicode but an older font that is provided in the .zip file. For best results, make sure you install the font files on your computer before using the module.

DOWNLOAD!

In order to get modules to work, be sure to do the following:
Step 1. Download the file as found on this page.
Step 2. Unzip the file into your databases subfolder of BibleWorks
Step 3. Right click on the CHM file (it’ll look like all other HTML help icons), go to Properties and make sure the box for Block is unchecked. (If you’re using Windows 7, the Properties box will be a bit different. Press the button that says Unblock. (see Jim West’s blog).
Step 4. Start up BibleWorks and the module is available either through the Menu system (under Resources) or in the Analysis tabs.

New Module - Moulton’s A Grammar of New Testament Greek

Tuesday, October 25th, 2011

As I continue cleaning out files that I’ve had around but don’t have enough time to perfect, I am now releasing a CHM module that contains James Moulton’s famous book A Grammar of New Testament Greek. Although it eventually became a four volume series, the first volume called Prolegomena still covers a lot of important ground including historical and linguistic background to koine Greek as well as syntactical notes on parts of speech. In other words, there’s a lot packed into this volume even if there are three other books that were later published in this series. Although it may not be as useful as other grammars in BibleWorks because it lacks Scripture tagging, I’m sure you’ll still find it useful in your study of the Greek New Testament.

This text was digitized by Ted Hildebrandt in 2006 and is used by his gracious permission. I have simply converted it into a form BibleWorks can use.

The main downside to the text is that I have not attempted to do Scriptural tagging and the font used is not Greek Unicode but an older font that is provided in the .zip file. For best results, make sure you install the font files on your computer before using the module.

DOWNLOAD!

In order to get modules to work, be sure to do the following:
Step 1. Download the file as found on this page.
Step 2. Unzip the file into your databases subfolder of BibleWorks
Step 3. Right click on the CHM file (it’ll look like all other HTML help icons), go to Properties and make sure the box for Block is unchecked. (If you’re using Windows 7, the Properties box will be a bit different. Press the button that says Unblock. (see Jim West’s blog).
Step 4. Start up BibleWorks and the module is available either through the Menu system (under Resources) or in the Analysis tabs.

Tregelles texts [update]

Thursday, October 13th, 2011

I have re-uploaded the Tregelles versions because of one small correction that has been made in them. Although the official Tregelles Project texts have not been updated, I confirmed the correction with project director Dirk Jongkind. The correction comes at Matthew 24:32. The printed Tregelles text should read:

Matthew 24:32 Ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς συκῆς μάθετε τὴν παραβολήν· ὅταν ἤδη ὁ κλάδος αὐτῆς γένηται ἁπαλός, καὶ τὰ φύλλα ἐκφυῇ, γινώσκετε ὅτι ἐγγὺς τὸ θέρος·

But the Tregelles project had initially written this as:

Matthew 24:32 Ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς συκῆς μάθετε τὴν παραβολήν· ὅταν ἤδη ὁ κλάδος αὐτῆς γένηται ἁπαλός, καὶ τὰ φύλλα ἐκφύῃ, γινώσκετε ὅτι ἐγγὺς τὸ θέρος·

Do you see this difference between the two texts? I’ll give you a hint, the difference is only a matter of the accent of one word. But changing the accent of the word changes the parsing of it from a subjunctive active to a subjunctive passive. Most of us miss this change in text, but Tregelles didn’t and apparently neither has BDAG, as it says:

The accentuation ἐκφυῇ (B-D-F. §76, 2; W-S. §13, 11; Mlt-H. 264), which is freq. preferred (but rejected by Jülicher, Gleichnisreden, II 4) would make the form a 2 aor. pass. subj., used intr., and make τὰ φύλλα the subj.: the leaves sprout (cp. Jos., Ant. 2, 83).

Maybe that small difference will never bother you, but it’s still the reading Tregelles had in his text and so it was a change worth making.

Special thanks to Pasquale for his eagle-eyes in finding this mistake.

DOWNLOAD TNT1 & TNT2

Unzip files to your \databases\ subfolder and copy over any old files, if you have them.

NOTE: If you have BibleWorks 9, there is no need to download these files, since BW9 already incorporates Tregelles’ texts in the main package under the version IDs TRG1 and TRG2.

Henry Alford’s Greek New Testament [Updated 2-14-12]

Tuesday, September 13th, 2011

Pasquale Amicarelli recently finished compiling a new Greek New Testament version for use in BibleWorks. This version is by Henry Alford and based on the 7th edition (1874) of his work. Alford’s New Testament is quite similar to Tregelles’ version, but still maintains its own unique characteristics. You can read a bit about it here (scroll down to Alford).

DOWNLOAD! (Instructions: Unzip all files to your BibleWorks DATABASE folder, then restart BibleWorks. The new database has the version id ALF. Note: the files work in older versions of BibleWorks as well as BibleWorks 9)

BibleWorks 9 - Manuscripts Project VII

Thursday, July 7th, 2011

[See more here.]

BibleWorks is not an open source program, but it is a program that allows for much more free adaptation than any of the other major Bible software programs. Since I’ve been using BibleWorks (I think that goes back to BibleWorks 5 or 6), I first fell in love with the Version Database Compiler which allows users to make their own Bible translations and import them into BibleWorks. While initially designed for Bible translators, I’ve made ample use of it, adding classical Greek and Latin texts to BibleWorks.

Later when HTML modules linked to BibleWorks were added to the program, BibleWorks allowed users to add their own custom HTML modules to the main program.

In that same vein, BibleWorks has not simply given users access to the manuscripts, BibleWorks 9 actually provides users with the very tools that scholars have been using to make transcriptions from manuscript images! While BibleWorks is continuing on its own to work at transcribing manuscripts, users could actually transcribe the manuscripts all by themselves and then compile and import them into BibleWorks and use them alongside any of the other manuscripts! The tools also make it possible to mark the images with the verse labels that are found in the BibleWorks manuscript images. Admittedly, the number of people who would want to do this is probably rather small, but it’s extraordinary that BibleWorks is sharing the power tools from their arsenal so freely.

Here’s a small glimpse of it in action.

Another companion tool is the Tagging Tool which allows you to morphologically tag your own Greek New Testament. There is no possible way to cover how this tool works in this post, but let’s just say you don’t have to manually enter in every tag. It’s made to help match your text against other morphological texts and fill out the text as completely as possible before letting you check out words that still are problematic. Again, this may not appeal to the common user, but now if you make your own Greek New Testament, it is easier than ever to make a morphology companion to it! The long-range goal here is to make it easy for people to develop public domain texts so that more people can share the Greek texts (but do be careful at first and read the Help files so that you are using public domain morphological databases rather than copyright protected and proprietary ones).

This picture doesn’t quite explain how it all works, but it lets you see how it’s laid out. In the top portion is the text that you wish to tag and in the bottom you can have other Greek morphological versions to compare with as you go.

Both of these tools are extremely powerful. They do take a bit of reading and trial and error to figure out. Most users probably won’t even want to use them, but BibleWorks is releasing them in BibleWorks 9 because they believe that the manuscripts project is not just giving people the final results, but giving them the tools as well so that anyone can become more familiar with the task of textual criticism and the creation of Greek critical texts.

BibleWorks 9 - Manuscripts Project VI

Tuesday, July 5th, 2011

[See more here.]

Anyone have any idea what I just did here, specifically, what kind of search?

**UPDATED**

Well as Nick correctly identified in the comments section, this was indeed an example of searching Codex Siniaiticus for all examples of nomina sacra. For those who do not know this term, nomina sacra are the words that have the bars above the letters. Nomina sacra is Latin and means “sacred names” and it is the term given to these words which are abbreviated in the manuscripts. The exact significance of the nomina sacra still is a somewhat open question in scholarship and is still a topic treated today (see here, here or here for recent discussions).

In BibleWorks 9, Sinaiticus is morphologically tagged, but it also includes extra tagging data so that you can search on the command line for all instances of nomina sacra in one quick and easy search. Currently it’s not as straightforward to search the nomina sacra for the other manuscripts because their morphological tagging is not yet added, but from Sinaiticus you can quickly get an idea of what it will be like when it is.

And for those who read this post after BibleWorks 9 comes out and want to know how to do this search, here’s how.

  • In the command line type “m-01a-m” (no quotation marks) to active the Siniaticus morphology version as the search version
  • Then type the following search into the command line, “.*@*+sxxc” and presto!

BibleWorks 9 - Manuscripts Project V

Friday, July 1st, 2011

[See more here.]

In this part of the preview of the BibleWorks Manuscripts Project I wanted to try to demonstrate what it can look like to see the transcribed manuscripts really working in the Browse Window in BibleWorks 9. Unfortunately there is so much to show, I found it impossible to get it in one picture, so you’ll have to bear with me.

The first image is heavily annotated, the others less so. What I’m trying to show, however, is that because these Greek manuscripts have been transcribed, you can see and use them in the Browse Window just like you can with other Bible versions. Right now only Codex Sinaiticus (M-01) is completely morphologically tagged. The other versions still work in the Browse Window, they just don’t have morphology capabilities. Those will be updated (free of charge) as they are ready.

This is the same scene as above, but I’ve cut out versions and applied automatic difference highlighting. I also show you M-01 is morphologically tagged.

A closer view of the collation window, with the handy abbreviation pop up. Notice I’ve added a few versions to the collation window (you can add or remove as many Greek manuscripts as you want).

From the collation window you can also export the collation if you want it for a paper or something, but the table can get a bit unwieldy if you’re working with a really long verse because it is laid out horizontally. The collation window has buttons to advance or go backwards by verse, but for easy use the entire MSS tab also automatically updates as you change verses in the Browse Window.

As you can see, beside the work that it took to transcribe the texts in the first place, BibleWorks’ programmers have made sure there is plenty that you can do with the manuscripts once they’re in BibleWorks 9!

BibleWorks 9 - The CNTTS New Testament Apparatus

Thursday, June 30th, 2011

[See more here.]

I feel like I’m kind of in a jam when it comes to talking about the CNTTS New Testament Apparatus because as much as I could tell you about it, your time is better spent viewing the video BibleWorks made showing some of its features, so I will direct you to it first.

The CNTTS (Center for New Testament Textual Studies) is an organization whose goal is to aid New Testament textual criticism by collating New Testament manuscripts and develop aids for that same end (their goals are more thoroughly laid out on their website). Their apparatus is currently only available in BibleWorks and Accordance. What’s important about them for your purposes is that they’ve been hard at work producing a new critical apparatus that is one of the most thorough apparatus to date. Unlike the most commonly known apparatus that is found in the bottom of the page of the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament, an apparatus which is by no means comprehensive (it doesn’t try to be), the CNTTS has attempted to produce an apparatus that *is* comprehensive, that is one that notes every variant that exists in the manuscripts. Obviously since it exists in a digital form, this kind of comprehensive nature is possible, whereas it would simply not be feasible in book form; it would take multiple books — the CNTTS says their database is approaching 20,000 pages in length already!

The implementation of it contains not simply a listing of all variants, but editorial remarks about them as well. Thus variants are marked as significant, insignificant, singular or lacunae. These are all explained in much greater detail in the apparatus than I will share now, but the point is that you’re given not simply variants, but you’re given certain kinds of information about them, which can help in searching for significant variants or certain manuscripts, etc. In other words, it’s not just that the digital nature of the project makes it easier to be comprehensive, it also includes powerful search possibilities that infinitely increase the value of the apparatus.

Compare for instance what Tischendorf’s textual apparatus (on the left) looks like as opposed to the CNTTS apparatus (on the right). They both look a bit unwieldy, but be aware that clicking on symbols will tell you what they mean):

The biggest thing to notice is how much information the CNTTS contains. On the first variant marked in Tischendorf he says that δε is added in manuscript 13, 69, 124 and a Coptic manuscript. While that’s well and good CNTTS notes that this reading is found not just in 13, 69, and 124, but also in 1186, 1220 and f13 (a certain group of manuscripts referred to as family-13). While this in itself may be a relatively minor observation, the point is that because the CNTTS includes more manuscript evidence, you are better able to make textual critical decisions because you have better evidence at your fingertips. Chances are the CNTTS will show variants where Tischendorf won’t because its coverage is that much greater.

So should we just throw away all other textual apparatuses? No, not quite yet anyway. Tischendorf and Nestle-Aland still do have some value because they not only cite Greek manuscript witnesses, but they also note witnesses from other languages and quotations from the early Church Fathers. But when it comes to evidence drawn from Greek New Testament manuscripts, CNTTS is the top dog.